The Department of Defense's Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration Program

A Guide for State, Local and Private Partners

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A

ACUB:
Army Compatible Use Buffer

AICUZ:
Air Installation Compatible Use Zone

Accident Potential Zones:
The area beyond the Clear Zone that possesses a significant potential for accidents.

Air Installations:
Fixed-wing and rotary-wing military airfields.

B

BRAC:
Base Realignment and Closure

C

Clear Zone:
A surface on the ground or water beginning at the runway end and symmetrical about the runway centerline extended.

D

DoD:
Department of Defense

DOI:
Department of Interior

E

Easement:
An easement is a legal right to use another's land for a specific limited purpose; when an entity is granted an easement, it is allowed the legal right to use the property, but the legal title to the land itself remains with the owner of the land. In this case, easements granted to REPI and its partners, allow the program to protect the land by limiting the uses of the land.

Electromagnetic spectrum:
The range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands.

Encroachment:
Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

ESOH:
Environment, Safety and Occupational Health

F

FAA:
Federal Aviation Administration

G

GS:
General Schedule

H

I

Installation:
A general term used to indicate a base, fort, camp, range or other DoD facility.

J

JLUS:
Joint Land Use Study

K

L

LTA:
Land Trust Alliance

M

N

NDAA:
National Defense Authorization Act

O

O&M:
Operations and Maintenance

OEA:
Office of Economic Adjustment

OSD:
Office of the Secretary of Defense

P

Parcel:
An area of land consisting of a specific plot or plots of land that the Military Service would acquire and report in the REPI database as a single transaction.

Partner(s):
A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit conservation organizations, and local land trusts. Eligible entities under section 2684a are a defined subset of partners.

Q

R

RAICUZ:
Range Air Installation Compatible Use Zones

Range:
Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

RCS:
Recovery Credit System

RCW:
Red-cockaded woodpecker

RDT&E:
Research Development Test & Evaluation

REPI:
Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration

S

SERPPAS:
Southeast Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability

SES:
Senior Executive Service

T

U

USDA:
U.S. Department of Agriculture

USFWS:
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

V

W

Willing seller:
A landowner who voluntarily agrees to sell or donate an interest in their property to the Department of Defense or partner.

Workarounds:
Workarounds are modifications to the timing, tempo, location, or equipment used for test and training. These deviations from doctrinal test and training standards may include: reducing training days or time; segmenting an exercise into discrete steps; or changing flight patterns, limiting live-fire, and using simulations.

WRP:
Western Regional Partnership

X

Y

Z

Military Service Programs to Implement REPI Projects

While the Office of the Secretary of Defense provides overarching REPI program policy and guidance and administers funding, the Military Services manage project and partnership planning and implementation. The Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Air Force manage a comprehensive portfolio of REPI projects through a Military Service-specific process. Each Military Service program specifies how REPI partnerships and their projects are planned, identified, reviewed, and approved. The following provides a brief summary of key steps and processes for each Military Service program.

Army

The Army uses a variety of supporting programs and tools to ensure sustainment of its installations, ranges, and test and training lands, including its implementation of the 2684a authority through Army Compatible Use Buffers (ACUBs). ACUB enables the Department of the Army to maintain the capability to support mission requirements through conservation by entering into cooperative agreements with partners who purchase land or interests in land from willing landowners.

An Army installation prepares an ACUB proposal, which includes a comprehensive analysis of encroachment including threat, risk, and solution. The proposal details a long-term partnership approach to protect prioritized lands at critical at-risk test or training areas. The ACUB partner, not the Army, acquires a land interest from the landowner—either fee simple title or a conservation or restrictive use easement. The partner provides necessary land management and easement monitoring and enforcement, while the Army retains a right to monitor or enforce, or transfer interest to another eligible partner if the partner fails to meet the terms of the Cooperative Agreement. Key steps in the ACUB process include:

  1. Installation identifies the need and submits an ACUB proposal to headquarters
  2. A Cooperative Agreement between the Army and partner organization(s) is executed
  3. Partner interacts with a willing seller to structure terms of the transaction
  4. Partner provides terms to Army for review and approval
  5. Army authorizes funding to partner
  6. Partner and willing landowner execute the transaction
  7. Process repeats as required

Navy and Marine Corps

Under the Department of the Navy (DON), Navy and Marine Corps installations develop an Encroachment Management Program to address compatibility and readiness sustainment. The Encroachment Partnering (EP) program is a key component of the overall Encroachment Management Program, providing the tool to implement the 2684a authority and REPI program funding. The Navy and Marine Corps seek out partners who share a vested long-term interest in properties of mutual interest and who are able to secure funding to participate in the transactions. DON and its partners primarily enter into multi-year encroachment protection agreements that identify geographic areas of interest and govern how each party will conduct a transaction using the combination of partner, REPI program, and Navy/Marine Corps funds. Under this over-arching multiyear agreement the partnership executes individual real estate transactions over a period of years. Funds are obligated and maintained in escrow, so as to be available in the subsequent fiscal year and to allow funding to be added every fiscal year based on requirements and availability of funds.

In some cases, partners may obtain a perpetual conservation easement on a property to preserve its compatible use or to protect habitat to mitigate environmental restrictions on test and training, while the property remains in private ownership. In other cases, the partner will purchase the property outright and manage it for public benefit. In each case, the DON obtains a real property interest from the partner, typically in the form of a restrictive use easement or conservation easement, ensuring that the land use will be compatible with nearby military uses in perpetuity. Key steps in the Navy and Marine Corps EP process include:

  1. Generally, the Installation, potential partners, and stakeholders have independent land use studies to identify priority lands and operational requirements
  2. The Installation may host a compatible use workshop to seek involvement and support from potential partners and stakeholders
  3. Potential partners may host a Conservation Forum or other outreach events to explain the process and seek involvement and support
  4. Partner or Installation identifies a willing seller and partner identifies funding sources
  5. The local Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) executes all DON agreements and/or acquisitions of real property interests with partner
  6. Generally, partner negotiates conservation easement or fee purchase from willing seller
  7. Navy Real Estate Specialist negotiates real property interest transaction with partner
  8. DON authorizes funding to escrow account
  9. NAVFAC approves reimbursement (invoices) or check at closing, generally from escrow
  10. NAVFAC reports all Navy/USMC transactions to OSD

Air Force

The Air Force encroachment management enterprise planning process provides a holistic approach, from decision-making regarding mission changes to mission sustainment. Underpinning this enterprise process is collaboration and communication across and between organizations at all levels—including Air Force Headquarters, Major Commands, and installations—as well as with stakeholders. To further enhance its encroachment prevention efforts, the Air Force is developing a collaborative planning and partnering effort and is transforming its off-base encroachment efforts with a comprehensive strategy that integrates a full range of tools, including REPI projects and use of the 2684a authority.

The Air Force’s efforts combine internal real estate acquisition strategies for obtaining easements with external communication and outreach strategies. Together with its partners and stakeholders, installations identify parcels for acquisition and develop a REPI project proposal. Air Force Major Commands review and prioritize proposals to be submitted to Air Force Headquarters, who then nominates projects to OSD for REPI program funding. After the partner acquires a conservation easement or fee title to the target parcel, the Air Force may become a co-signatory on the conservation easement or obtain a real property interest in the form of a restrictive-use easement from the partner. Key steps in working with the Air Force include:

  1. Installation creates REPI project team to define area of concern and identify partners
  2. Installation executes agreements with partner on a project-by-project basis
  3. Partner identifies a willing seller and matching funds
  4. Partner negotiates conservation easement or fee purchase from landowner
  5. Installation attorney negotiates restrictive easement purchase from partner
  6. Air Force obligates funding to partner for closing
  7. Partner closes transaction
  8. Annual Reports to the Air Force

The REPI Program is a key tool for combating encroachment that can limit or restrict military training, testing, and operations. The REPI Program protects these military missions by helping remove or avoid land-use conflicts near installations, ranges, and their associated facilities, range infrastructure, and airspace, as well as addressing regulatory restrictions that inhibit military activities.

A key component of the REPI Program is the use of encroachment management partnerships, referred to as REPI projects, among the Military Services, private conservation groups, and state and local governments, authorized by Congress at 10 U.S.C. § 2684a. These win-win partnerships share the cost of acquisition of easements or other interests in land from willing sellers to preserve land uses that are compatible with military missions and natural habitats near installations and ranges that help sustain critical, military capabilities.

REPI projects contribute to the longevity of working farms, forests, and ranchlands; increase recreational and open space opportunities for nearby residents and military families; and protect against military relocations that would adversely affect the local economy.

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Workarounds are modifications to the timing, tempo, location, or equipment used for test and training. These deviations from doctrinal test and training standards may include: reducing training days or time; segmenting an exercise into discrete steps; or changing flight patterns, limiting live-fire, and using simulations.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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Military installations and corresponding defense-related activities provide states and localities with a robust economy. Jobs that are generated through the military provide tax revenues that help create programs for many communities. The Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA) compiles annual data on state defense spending. This information can be found on OEA’s website.

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A landowner who voluntarily agrees to sell or donate an interest in their property to the Department of Defense or partner.

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Introduction

Essential Elements of a REPI Partnership

  • Eligible entity: State or local government or private conservation organization

    For military installations interested in learning more about working with state and local governments or other potential partners, visit the REPI primer series.

  • Willing Sellers
  • Cost share for the partner’s acquisition of real property interests
  • Must protect compatible land uses or preserve habitat
  • Show clear link to mission benefit

Who is the department of defense?

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The Department of Defense manages approximately 25 million acres of land on about 420 large military installations. Around 344 of these installations have “significant natural resources,” as defined by federal law.

Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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DoD is a complex organization and is also America’s largest organization. It is made up of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the three Military Departments (including the four Military Services, each with single-Military Service and joint installations and ranges), the Joint Chiefs of Staffs, and numerous field agencies. Across the entire Department, the Office of the Secretary of Defense provides overarching REPI program guidance and funding support for the Military Departments’ efforts to protect their installations and ranges and the missions they support.

The three Military Departments within DoD are the Departments of the Army, Air Force, and Navy—the Marine Corps is part of the Department of the Navy. We commonly refer to the “four Military Services” to include Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. The Army and Air National Guard are also components within the Army and Air Force. Getting to know our organization is helpful because the Military Services prepare long-term strategies, engage in partnerships, and complete transactions via Military Service-specific processes described in the appendix.

Military ranks are split between officers and enlisted personnel. Officer ranks begin with O-1 (most junior) and go up to O-10 (most senior). Similarly, enlisted personnel ranks begin with E-1 (most junior) and go up to E-9 (most senior). Civilian employees that work alongside officers and enlisted personnel are classified by their General Schedule (GS) scale. The GS scale begins at GS-1 (most junior) and goes up to GS-15 (most senior). Some very senior DoD civilians are classified using the Senior Executive Service (SES) scale, which goes from SES-1 (most junior) to SES-6 (most senior). DoD civilians in the SES scale are equivalent to military General Officers or Flag Officers (Admirals).

DoD’s Impact on the Local Economy

DoD installations positively impact local economies: they bring people to military facilities and nearby areas, employ and pay these individuals, and therefore, create economic stimulation within local communities. The influx of recruits, active duty Military Service members, and civilians generates money that flows from DoD to those individuals, who, in turn, put the money back into the local community. DoD also injects large sums of money into the private sector in regions with a military installation. Some of the industries that benefit from this investment are engineering, construction, research, hospitals, and food services.

The impact also includes environmental stewardship and conservation, energy conservation and alternative energy development, and extensive engagement with local communities. The military goes to great lengths to balance its operations with the protection of plant and animal species as well as human health. Renewable energy implementation and use on installations has grown significantly in recent years, which reduces the burden on our environment from inefficient consumer products and dirty sources of energy.

DoD Organizational Structure

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    • Department of Defense

      The Department of Defense’s mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of our country; it oversees the departments of the Army, Navy, and the Air Force. The department's headquarters is at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia.

      View Military Services Implementation Programs

      • Secretary of Defense

        The Secretary of Defense is the principal defense policy advisor to the President. Under the direction of the President, the Secretary exercises authority, direction, and control over the Department of Defense. The Office of the Secretary of Defense houses a number of programs, including the REPI program.

        View Military Services Implementation Programs

        • logo

          The REPI Program resides under the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Energy, Installations and Environment.

          www.repi.mil

      • Department of the Army

        The Army consists of numbered armies, corps, divisions, brigades, and battalions that conduct full spectrum operations around the world. The Army also has institutions that support its operations with infrastructure necessary to raise, train, equip, deploy, and ensure military readiness.

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      • The Department of the Navy consists of two uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Navy trains and equips combat-ready Naval forces to deter aggression and maintain freedom of the seas. It also oversees the construction, outfitting, and repair of naval ships, equipment and facilities.

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        • Marine Corps

          As the Nation’s crisis response force and force in readiness, the Marines respond to a full range of crises and contingencies. It can serve as enabler for joint/combined forces Amphibious Task Force (ATF), Maritime Prepositioning Squadron (MPS) , or Strategic Air Lift as deployment options.

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      • Department of the Air Force

        The Air Force provides oversees all missions in airspace and cyberspace. It trains and equips airmen for global strike, rapid global mobility, command & control, and maximizes battlespace awareness.

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DoD MANAGES
25 MILLION ACRES OF LAND

ON ABOUT
420 INSTALLATIONS

344 INSTALLATIONS
HAVE SIGNIFICANT NATURAL RESOURCES
ACCORDING TO FEDERAL LAW.

Discover more on the DoD Natural Resources Program's website

What is encroachment?

Military readiness depends upon the solid platform of training and testing capabilities of our Nation’s installations, ranges, and other training and testing spaces. This infrastructure is necessary for conducting daily operations, realistic live-fire training, and effective weapon system testing. Reduced capability and availability of existing land, air, water access, and electromagnetic spectrum put military readiness at risk.

Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training. If warfighters or their units receive restricted or inadequate training, they are less likely to fully understand combat strategies and tactics, leading to insufficient skills or unnecessarily risky practices on the battlefield. Partnering to limit incompatible development and preserve habitat is vital to avoiding costly training workarounds and higher future military expenses that strain budgets and risk readiness for our nation’s defense.




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Encroachment, whether by land, air, or water, has the potential to impact military training, testing, and operational readiness. These factors do not exist in isolation and many times require a comprehensive, cross-boundary approach to addressing encroachment.

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Electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands.

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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Workarounds are modifications to the timing, tempo, location, or equipment used for test and training. These deviations from doctrinal test and training standards may include: reducing training days or time; segmenting an exercise into discrete steps; or changing flight patterns, limiting live-fire, and using simulations.

View all definitions

Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit conservation organizations, and local land trusts. Eligible entities under section 2684a are a defined subset of partners.

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An interest in land owned by another entity that consists of the right to use or control the land, or an area above or below it, for a specific limited purpose.

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How do REPI projects work?

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An easement is a legal right to use another's land for a specific limited purpose; when an entity is granted an easement, it is allowed the legal right to use the property, but the legal title to the land itself remains with the owner of the land. In this case, easements granted to REPI and its partners, allow the program to protect the land by limiting the uses of the land.

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A landowner who voluntarily agrees to sell or donate an interest in their property to the Department of Defense or partner.

View all definitions
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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

View all definitions
Close

A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit conservation organizations, and local land trusts. Eligible entities under section 2684a are a defined subset of partners.

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REPI Projects Across the Country

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REPI State Profiles | REPI Projects

Fort Wainwright Fort Wainwright Profile Alaska Profile Complete State Package Fort Huachuca Fort Huachuca Profile NO Flagstaff NO Flagstaff Profile Arizona Profile Complete State Package Beale AFB Beale AFB Profile Travis AFB Travis AFB Profile NAS Lemoore NAS Lemoore Profile Camp Roberts Camp Roberts Profile Camp San Luis Obispo Camp San Luis Obispo Profile Vandenberg AFB Vandenberg AFB Profile NAWS China Lake NAWS China Lake Profile NB Ventura County NB Ventura County Profile MCB Camp Pendleton MCB Camp Pendleton Profile MCAS Miramar MCAS Miramar Profile NB Coronado Camp Michael Monsoor NB Coronado Camp Michael Monsoor Profile MCAGCC Twentynine Palms MCAGCC Twentynine Palms Profile El Centro Range El Centro Range Profile California Profile Complete State Package Buckley AFB Buckley AFB Profile Fort Carson Fort Carson Profile Colorado Profile Complete State Package 99th Armed Forces Reserve Center 99th Armed Forces Reserve Center Profile Connecticut Profile Complete State Package NAS Pensacola NAS Pensacola Profile NAS Whiting Field NAS Whiting Field Profile Eglin AFB Eglin AFB Profile Tyndall AFB Tyndall AFB Profile NS Mayport NS Mayport Profile OLF Whitehouse OLF Whitehouse Profile Camp Blanding Camp Blanding Profile Cape Canaveral AFS Cape Canaveral AFS Profile 5 Avon Park AFR Avon Park AFR Profile Florida Profile Complete State Package Fort Gordon Fort Gordon Profile Robins AFB Robins AFB Profile Fort Benning Fort Benning Profile Fort Stewart Fort Stewart Profile Townsend Bombing Range Townsend Bombing Range Profile Southeast Regional Army Project Southeast Regional Army Project Profile Georgia Profile Complete State Package Joint Base Pearl Harbor - Hickam Wahiawa Annex Joint Base Pearl Harbor - Hickam Wahiawa Annex Profile U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii Profile Hawaii Profile Complete State Package Fort Riley Fort Riley Profile Kansas Profile Complete State Package Fort Knox Fort Knox Profile Fort Campbell Fort Campbell Profile Kentucky Profile Complete State Package Fort Polk Fort Polk Profile NAS JRB New Orleans NAS JRB New Orleans Profile Louisiana Profile Complete State Package NSY Portsmouth - SERE School NSY Portsmouth - SERE School Profile Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen Proving Ground Profile Atlantic Test Ranges Atlantic Test Ranges Profile NAS Patuxent River NAS Patuxent River Profile NSF Indian Head NSF Indian Head Profile Maryland Profile Complete State Package Fort Custer Fort Custer Profile Michigan Profile Complete State Package Camp Ripley Camp Ripley Profile Minnesota Profile Complete State Package NCBC Gulfport NCBC Gulfport Profile Camp Shelby Camp Shelby Profile NAS Meridian NAS Meridian Profile Mississippi Profile Complete State Package Fort Harrison, Limestone Hills Fort Harrison, Limestone Hills Profile Montana Profile 24" > Montana Complete State Package NAS Fallon NAS Fallon Profile Nevada Profile Complete State Package Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst Profile Warren Grove Range Warren Grove Range Profile New Jersey Profile nchor="start"> New Jersey Profile Complete State Package Fort Drum Fort Drum Profile New York Profile Complete State Package < Dare County Bombing Range Dare County Bombing Range Profile MCB Camp Lejeune, MCAS New River MCB Camp Lejeune, MCAS New River Profile MCAS Cherry Point/Piney Island Bombing Range MCAS Cherry Point/Piney Island Bombing Range Profile Fort Bragg Fort Bragg Profile Fort Bragg USASOC Fort Bragg USASOC Profile North Carolina Profile Complete State Package Tinker AFB Tinker AFB Profile Fort Sill Fort Sill Profile Oklahoma Profile Complete State Package Camp Rilea Camp Rilea Profile NWSTF Boardman NWSTF Boardman Profile Oregon Profile Complete State Package Fort Indiantown Gap Fort Indiantown Gap Profile Pennsylvania Profile Complete State Package Midlands Area Joint Installation Consortium (MAJIC) Midlands Area Joint Installation Consortium (MAJIC) Profile MCAS Beaufort MCAS Beaufort Profile South Carolina Profile Complete State Package Ellsworth AFB Ellsworth AFB Profile South Dakota Profile Complete State Package Fort Hood Fort Hood Profile Camp Swift Camp Swift Profile Joint Base San Antonio (Camp Bullis) Joint Base San Antonio (Camp Bullis) Profile White Sands Missile Range White Sands Missile Range Profile Fort Bliss Fort Bliss Profile Texas Profile Complete State Package Camp Williams Camp Williams Profile Utah Profile Complete State Package NSF Dahlgren NSF Dahlgren Profile Fort A.P. Hill Fort A.P. Hill Profile MCB Quantico MCB Quantico Profile Fort Pickett Fort Pickett Profile NWS Yorktown NWS Yorktown Profile Joint Base Langley-Eustis Joint Base Langley-Eustis Profile NAS Oceana NAS Oceana Profile NSA Hampton Roads Northwest Annex NSA Hampton Roads Northwest Annex Profile Virginia Profile Complete State Package NAS Whidbey Island NAS Whidbey Island Profile OLF Coupeville OLF Coupeville Profile NAVMAG Indian Island NAVMAG Indian Island Profile NB Kitsap NB Kitsap Profile Joint Base Lewis-McChord Joint Base Lewis-McChord Profile Fairchild AFB Fairchild AFB Profile Washington Profile Complete State Package

As of 2017, there are REPI projects at 93 locations in 31 states across the country. Each project includes one or more parcels protected through a REPI partnership. Most projects have received funding over multiple years. All DoD installations in the United States and territories are eligible for REPI program funds. If you do not see your neighboring installation on this map, you can still develop a partnership. Refer to Section 7 for more information on how to pursue partnership opportunities. Discover spatial attributes related to each project using the REPI Interactive Map.

How do I develop and implement a REPI project?

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DoD Instruction 4715.24, “The Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration (REPI) Program and Encroachment Management,” establishes policy, assigns responsibility, and provides procedures for executing the REPI program.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

View all definitions
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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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A general term used to indicate a base, fort, camp, range or other DoD facility.

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Fixed-wing and rotary-wing military airfields.

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The area beyond the Clear Zone that possesses a significant potential for accidents.

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A surface on the ground or water beginning at the runway end and symmetrical about the runway centerline extended.

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An area of land consisting of a specific plot or plots of land that the Military Service would acquire and report in the REPI database as a single transaction.

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The REPI program is an internal DoD program, managed by OSD, that supports the partnerships described in this primer. The REPI program does not provide funding to our partners through an open grants program; rather each Military Service submits project proposals for funding through an online proposal tracker platform using authorized account access. Each Military Service manages a comprehensive portfolio of encroachment management projects and is not required to submit all of those projects for REPI program funding. The appendix contains details about each Military Service’s process for identifying, reviewing, and approving encroachment management projects.

In general, projects are identified locally at the installation or training and testing range level, but reviewed and approved centrally at the Military Service headquarters level. OSD provides overarching REPI program policy and guidance, administers REPI funding, and oversees reporting and tracking of Military Service efforts.

PROJECT PROPOSAL REVIEW PROCESS

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Annual Feedback

X

1. Local-Level Planning and Analysis (Ongoing)

  • Installation evaluates encroachment problems and solutions
  • Partner(s) identify areas of interest and develop relationships with landowners
X

2. Installation to Service Headquarters (Annually July-Sep)

  • Installation prepares plans to address test and training needs and submits proposal to Service Headquarters
  • Service Headquarters reviews/approves proposals and determines funding strategy
X

3. Service Headquarters to OSD (Annually Sep-Oct)

  • Service submits REPI proposals to OSD for review by REPI Inter-Service Working Group (ISWG)
  • OSD reviews proposals using criteria set in the REPI Guide
X

4. REPI Program Funding Decision (Annually Oct-Dec)

  • OSD determines allocation rankings and distributes funding for Service implementation

Project Implementation, Monitoring, and Reporting

While the focus of REPI projects is to acquire easements or other interests in land, partnerships do not end there. To sustain our ongoing training, testing, and operational capabilities, protection of land and habitat through REPI projects is usually perpetual. To ensure permanence, a partner must plan for easement monitoring, enforcement, and, in some cases, long-term natural resources management. Future costs for natural resources management, monitoring, and enforcement may be placed as a lump sum in an interest-bearing or other investment account.

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Reporting Requirements

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Reporting Requirements



Military Service representatives work closely with partners to implement projects and close transactions. Specific reporting requirements vary among the Military Services, depending upon the types of agreements used to obligate funds. Partners should expect to do at least annual reporting to the installation on project status and to carry on long-term partnerships with installations. DoD, meanwhile, is required to provide Congress annual report on our use of the REPI partnership authority. The Military Services provide OSD with information related to all transactions under the authority and project cost shares, and OSD details project accomplishments and benefits. If funds are placed in an interest-bearing account for natural resources management and monitoring and enforcement, the Military Service is required to account for interest or other income earned and report on the disposition of these funds biennially to OSD as part of their congressional reporting requirements.

Natural Resource Management & Restoration

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Natural Resource Management & Restoration



Many REPI projects that preserve habitat require more than just protecting the land from being developed. Projects often involve long-term management of natural resources, including habitat restoration and enhancement and species monitoring. REPI program funds may be used for these purposes, even as a one-time, upfront payment placed into an interest bearing or other investment account; however, there are limitations. Coordinate with your Military Service representative to determine whether specific activities are eligible or ineligible for REPI funding.

Easement Monitoring & Enforcement

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Easement Monitoring & Enforcement



REPI partnerships should plan for and institute procedures to review, monitor, and, as necessary, enforce the terms of all easements or other real estate interests acquired. Partnerships should perform these services at least annually, such as through visual inspections of the properties according to the Land Trust Alliance’s Land Trust Standards and Practices.





Other Complementary Land Use Tools

REPI partnerships are one of many tools in the encroachment management toolbox. Integrating REPI partnerships with some of the other DoD tools and strategies can help further increase land protection, conservation, and cost savings. A few other examples:


Through the Air Installations Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) and Range Air Installations Compatible Use Zone (RAICUZ) program, air installations work with local governments and the community to educate stakeholders on the air installation’s mission and develop compatible land use recommendations that can inform zoning and local ordinances with the aim of reducing potential accidents and noise impacts to the community. This program designates Accident Potential Zones, Clear Zones, and noise zones at the end of military runways. These are areas of land that need to be compatible with air operations while preserving the health and safety of on-base personnel and the community. The Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force all use AICUZ criteria to strategically identify parcels in the vicinity of air stations and bases to be protected.

Instead of using REPI program or O&M funds for DoD contributions to a REPI project transaction, the Military Services can use a property exchange under the authority of 10 U.S.C. § 2869. The 2869 authority allows DoD to convey excess or closed Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) property in exchange for an agreement to acquire real property under the 2684a authority. Excess land can be directly exchanged for land of equal value that will be protected through a REPI partnership, or the excess land can be transferred to a partner who agrees to make a contribution of equivalent value to a REPI project transaction. A land exchange provides DoD the ability to efficiently use limited resources to benefit its mission. Meanwhile, the excess DoD property is returned to the tax rolls or otherwise used for community benefit.

The Office of Economic Adjustment (OEA) Compatible Use and Joint Land Use Studies (JLUS) Program is the only program of direct Federal assistance to help states and communities work with the Military Services to promote compatible civilian development in support of the long-term sustainability and operability of military installations, including ranges, special use airspace, military operations areas, and military training routes. OEA provides technical and financial assistance to state and local governments to undertake a JLUS and carry out the recommended strategies to promote compatible civilian development. Through a community-driven JLUS planning process, adjacent communities and often the state, in partnership with the installation, identify and evaluate a wide range of existing and potential future compatibility challenges that may impair the military mission. The affected communities then develop a strategic action plan to identify specific actions, responsible parties, a proposed timeline, and possible funding sources to address the compatibility challenges. Through the JLUS, a Military Service and/or the affected communities may identify an issue for which a REPI project can provide resolution. Thus, JLUS serves as a powerful tool for the REPI program in bringing communities and the military together to address compatible land use issues and needs.

Military Aviation and Installation Assurance Clearinghouse was established in 2010 to provide a timely, transparent, and repeatable process that can evaluate potential impacts from energy development as well as explore mitigation options that preserve the DoD mission. With the rapid expansion of alternative energy, DoD is increasingly called on to review the compatibility of proposed wind, solar, transmission, and other projects with military activities.

DoD has a structured process for developers to request that DoD conduct mission compatibility evaluations, documented in 32 C.F.R. Part 211. The Clearinghouse's formal review process applies to projects filed with the Secretary of Transportation, under 49 U.S.C. § 44718 (Federal Aviation Administration obstruction evaluation process), as well as other projects proposed for construction within military training routes or special use airspace, whether on private, state, or Federal property, such as Bureau of Land Management lands. The Clearinghouse also provides informal reviews, when requested. This means that a developer, landowner, state, tribal, or other local official may request a preliminary determination in advance of the filing of an application with the Secretary of Transportation. More information can be found on the Clearinghouse website.

Installations work with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and state fish and wildlife agencies to ensure natural resources are managed consistent with proper stewardship and sound science, while complying with legal requirements. To alleviate restrictions on threatened and endangered species habitat, our installations are working beyond their boundaries to attain credits for promoting the conservation and recovery of a listed or potentially listed or its habitat. Installations can consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service according to Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act to accrue credits and alleviate restrictions by showing a measurable contribution to a species’ recovery through equivalent protection on non-DoD lands.

Additionally, DoD has specific regulatory authority to purchase credits directly from conservation banks, mitigation banks, and in-lieu fee programs (10 U.S.C. § 2694c and 10 U.S.C. § 2694d). Mitigation banks and in-lieu fee programs provide compensatory mitigation credits for impacts to wetlands and other aquatic resources. Banks issue credits prior to the impact, while in-lieu fee mitigation is implemented after the impact from the DoD activity. Under recovery credit systems, DoD serves as the bank. Recognition of DoD’s authority to use recovery credit systems is provided in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service guidance (73 Fed. Reg. 148, p. 44761-44772).


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The red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) is an endangered bird that inhabits the open pine forests (mainly longleaf pine) of the Southeast from New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia to Florida, West to Texas and North to portions of Oklahoma, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky. The RCW is a non-migratory species that makes its home (cavities) in mature pine forests. These birds are considered ‘keystone’ species because the use of their cavities by other species contributes to the richness of the pine forest.

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Gopher tortoises are currently endangered in the Southeast Region of the U.S. and threatened in other parts across the country. Each tortoise will dig and use many burrows throughout the active season; these burrows also provide refuge for about 360 other species throughout its range. Gopher tortoises thrive in relatively deep, sandy, soils and in longleaf pine forests. Threats include habitat fragmentation and degradation, predation, inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms, road kill, and incompatible use of herbicides in forest management.

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The checkerspot butterfly is currently a threatened species in the Northwest region of the U.S. that likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Checkerspot butterflies exist on shallow, serpentine-derived soil. Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation, invasion of exotic/invasive plants, nitrogen deposition, pesticide application (including drift), illegal collecting, fire, overgrazing, and gopher control.

What else does the REPI program support?

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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REPI newsletters are a quarterly production of the REPI office. They are written to provide our partners - military and civilian alike - with important updates, useful information, upcoming events, and a look into what REPI projects and partners are accomplishing across the country. Previous newsletters are available here. If you are not already signed up for REPI's mailing list, you can do so here.

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A general term used to indicate a base, fort, camp, range or other DoD facility.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit.

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A significant component of the REPI program involves engaging with our partners and other stakeholders to help advance understanding of each other’s missions. Key partners to the REPI program include the National Conference of State Legislatures, the National Association of Counties, the Association of Defense Communities, Land Trust Alliance, and the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture. Educational programs and materials include helpful tools and training like community forums; site visits of ranges and installations; quarterly newsletters; workshops and other trainings sessions; a robust webinar series that addresses best practices, tutorials, and capacity building on REPI partnerships; the REPI Program’s web mapping application; an interactive story map highlighting the program’s significant accomplishments through a narrated series of maps and pictures; and the REPI Program’s “primer” series, developed in partnership with a number of national partners. Primers, like this one, provide a chance to go in-depth with particular topics. You can download electronic copies for free at http://www.REPI.mil/primers. You may also request printed copies by sending an email to osd.repi@mail.mil. More information on these resources is available at http://www.REPI.mil.

Individual REPI projects can create greater and multiple benefits by expanding and coordinating their efforts and activities in the form of regional partnerships and landscape-scale initiatives. By promoting cross-boundary collaboration on planning and land use issues, REPI partnerships can enhance sustainability efforts of a broader scale and scope. To this end, DoD is a partner in two multi-state, multi-agency partnerships in rapidly growing areas of the country with significant DoD land presence: the Southeast and the Southwest regions of the U.S.


Serppas map

The Southeast Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS) brings together senior leadership from southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Mississippi) and federal agencies to work collectively on regional planning, conservation, economic, and sustainability issues.

wrp map

Similarly, the Western Regional Partnership (WRP) provides opportunities for state and federal agencies in California, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico to come together to discuss common issues and seek collaborative solutions.

sentinel landscapes

Most recently, DoD entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and the Interior (DOI) in 2013 to establish the Sentinel Landscapes Partnership. This nationwide Federal, local, and private partnership is dedicated to promoting natural resource sustainability and the preservation of agriculture and conservation land uses in areas surrounding military installations. Agencies from DoD, USDA, and DOI coordinate the Partnership at the national level through the Sentinel Landscapes Federal Coordination Committee (FCC), to identify and designate shared interests within a Landscape in order to coordinate strategies to preserve, enhance or protect habitat and working lands near military installations in order to reduce, prevent or eliminate restrictions due to incompatible development that inhibit military testing and training.

The Partnership seeks to recognize and incentivize landowners to continue maintaining these landscapes and use taxpayer dollars more efficiently. Although no dedicated funding accompanies Landscape designation, individual partner agencies may choose to provide program-specific funding or prioritize consideration in existing funding processes to landowners within a designated Landscape. Additionally, a designation will lead to improved recognition at the local, state, and national level for projects within a Landscape and provide an opportunity to better target collective resources and possibly develop new technical and financial assistance options tailored to address local needs.

large landscapes

Avon Park Airforce Range Designated Sentinel Landscape: Efforts to conserve working lands within the Avon Park Air Force Range Sentinel Landscape play a vital role in not only protecting the range’s important training mission, but also protecting and improving water quality within the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area



The Result: More Success for Everyone

The REPI Program’s outreach and engagement efforts increase understanding of the mutual benefits REPI partnerships provide and also attract more resources and partners to more projects. They provide tools for more effective application of solutions to reduce and prevent encroachment on military installations and to meet partner goals. The net result is more conservation of natural resources, better land use planning, and longer-term benefits for communities, stakeholders, and the military.

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Joint Base Lewis-McChord (JBLM): a REPI partnership success story. Since Joint Base Lewis-McChord hosts the majority of the remaining prairie habitat in the South Puget Sound, loss of prairie outside the base can lead to increased restrictions to protect the remaining habitat and its imperiled species, thereby threatening Army activities. One of two REPI projects at the base aims to restore habitat on southern Puget lowlands and sustain the Army training mission. Through REPI, JBLM leveraged contributions from the state and local governments to protect the McChord Field runway. Buffers prevent new commercial development and allow for the removal of buildings that violate runway safety zone requirements. Pilots can now use a previously unavailable precision-guidance instrument landing system, while ecological assets are preserved before they are endangered, benefiting the entire region.

What are key steps in developing a REPI encroachment management partnership?

The following are 10 key steps to help develop a successful partnership:

1. Find information, training, primers, policy and guidance on REPI projects and the respective Military Service programs. Information on REPI is available on the REPI website.

Work together

Partners learn and work together. At Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, an organized range tour allowed local partners to further understand the environment and needs of the military, while the military learns about the perspective and concerns of local partners.

2. Installations should identify potential partners; if you are a land trust or other organization interested in becoming a potential partner, you should contact the local or regional installation office. The following are some of the military representatives and offices that could be of assistance:

  1. Community Planning & Liaison Officers (Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force)
  2. Plans, Analysis and Integration Office (Army)
  3. DoD REPI Program (OSD)
  4. DoD Office of Economic Adjustment (OSD)
  5. Public Affairs Office (all Military Services)

3. Installations and partners should meet to discuss the possibility of learning more about the installation mission and operations, identify areas of mutual interest, and discuss if there is need for a JLUS. This meeting may, with prior coordination, include a site visit of training ranges and facilities. Contact the installation for more information on seeking a site visit.

Camp Williams Tank

Encroachment from population growth, urban development and environmental requirements limits the Army’s ability to fully utilize it's installations for realistic combat training. Congress acknowledged the threat of encroachment to military readiness and provided a legislative tool that allows the Army to work with other government or private partners to establish buffer areas around active ranges and training lands.

4. Share key information early in the project development process. Installations should evaluate mission capabilities at risk from encroachment, analyze the threat, and develop potential solutions for inclusion in comprehensive planning and proposal development. Partners should be involved and provide input early and often. Together, partnerships should work to:

  1. Prepare and provide maps of your focus area with parcel information
  2. Understand the military’s mission footprint
  3. Identify common land-use and conservation goals and partnerships
  4. Identify state and regional goals
  5. Identify overlapping partner areas of interest with the installation
  6. Inventory surrounding land uses and current zoning
  7. Identify, survey, and map the ecological landscape
  8. Identify or survey landowner interests

5. Contact and meet with other potentially interested partners and seek multiple funding sources, such as:

  1. Federal grants programs like National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coastal and Estuarine Land Conservation Program, U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service, or National Park Service’s Land and Water Conservation Fund grants
  2. State and local grant programs such as the North Carolina Clean Water Management Trust Fund or the Virginia Land Conservation Fund
  3. State military planning commission funds
  4. Donations of land in fee or conservation easements
  5. Land exchanges (as authorized for DoD under 10 U.S.C. § 2869)
  6. Crediting or banking opportunities

6. Agree on a long-term strategy and work together to prepare plans or proposals. The REPI project process takes time and may take years to see through. Develop land protection strategies that provide the maximum flexibility to meet landowner needs and partner missions, protect the military mission, and leverage the greatest number of other resources.

US Army Terrain

U.S. Army Soldiers must be prepared to operate in any terrain, bringing the fight to those that threaten the safety of our nation or our allies.

7. Raise matching funds. There is no minimum cost share requirement but the Military Services may have varying targets.

US Paratroopers

Paratroopers from the 1st Battalion (Airborne) 143rd Infantry Regiment and Charlie Troop (LRS) 3rd Squadron, 124th Cavalry Regiment conduct airborne operations at Fort Hood's Rapido Drop Zone.

8. Continuously canvass the community for interested landowners and be active in community outreach.

Moyer Ranch in Fort Riley

Rod Moyer, owner of Moyer Ranch near Fort Riley, Kan., speaks to attendees of the conservation easement signing. The agreement protects Moyer's land from future development.

9. Work together closely and keep each other fully informed of ongoing process and status of the transaction.

Camp Blanding

Camp Blanding's Environmental Program Manager, inspects the project to gauge success while monitoring for potential invasive species infestation. Future management of the newly forested sites will involve reintroduction of fire management and eventually even timber harvesting to support forest health and training use.

10. Celebrate success with signing ceremonies and other special events, and carry that momentum forward to project implementation and other successes!

Ripley Sunrise March

A river of national economic and ecological significance, the Mississippi River flows through the Camp Ripley Sentinel Landscape. Efforts to conserve working and open lands around Camp Ripley are helping to protect seven sub-watersheds of the Mississippi River, improving water quality and vital habitat for numerous species.

Lessons Learned

The following are some recommendations gained from the valuable feedback of our partners and installations who have successfully completed REPI project transactions:

    Establish contacts between installation, regional military office, and local community stakeholders—stable points of contact improve the process and communication.

    Keep communication open and provide updates on a regular basis.

    Make sure everyone has a common understanding and keeps perspective on the partnership’s context and goals.

    Align goals between military and partners to optimize funding and target priorities.

    Be aware of landowner education and biases.

    Involve a partner that can translate the often technical language of the REPI authority to unfamiliar landowners.

    Take time to build trust with other agencies and stakeholders.

    Choose a project that is a priority for all stakeholders involved—increases motivation.

    Develop agreements with all parties contributing funds so that they all agree to the appraiser selected and the guidelines.

    Start the process as soon as possible.

    Build on previous partnerships or other successes.

    Prepare for delays, changes in procedure, and other roadblocks, but don’t get discouraged!

    Seek other funding sources that have the same land preservation goals.

Summary

Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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Summary

REPI partnerships are one solution for combating encroachment and supporting our Nation’s long-term military readiness, while delivering mutual, multiple benefits to communities and stakeholders.

Puzzle peices

Through REPI projects, you can support the men and women in uniform who defend our nation as well as their families and communities, enhance military readiness, conserve valuable habitat, preserve working farms and forestland, foster sustainable economies, and protect your local heritage. The REPI program also provides new opportunities to collaborate with other federal land conservation programs and landscape-scale initiatives. There are many opportunities to come together in partnership with the REPI program and make a difference.





celebrate success

Take the time to celebrate success. Getting together to celebrate the success of your REPI partnership is a small but important way to acknowledge everyone’s hard work, build more meaningful relationships, and carry the momentum forward. U.S. Army Garrison-Hawaii’s partners and the local community held a special event to celebrate the protection of a 1,129- acre coastal bluff at Pupukea-Paumalu near the Army’s Kahuku Training Area on the North Shore of the island of Oahu. Partners from the Army, The Trust for Public Land, and the North Shore Community Land Trust attended the community ceremony.