REPI 101:

A Guide for State, Local and Private Partners

Introduction

The REPI Program is a key tool for combating encroachment that can limit or restrict military training, testing, and operations. The REPI Program preserves and enhances these military missions by helping remove or avoid land-use conflicts near installations, ranges, and their associated facilities, range infrastructure, and airspace, as well as addressing regulatory restrictions that inhibit military activities.

A key component of the REPI Program is the use of encroachment management partnerships, referred to as REPI projects, among the Military Services, private conservation groups, and state and local governments, authorized by Congress at 10 United States Code (U.S.C.) § 2684a. Congress expanded the 2684a authority in the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 (Public Law 115-232) to include agreements that enhance or improve military installation resilience. These win-win partnerships share the cost of acquisition of easements or other interests in land from willing sellers to preserve land uses that are compatible with military missions and natural habitats near installations and ranges that help sustain critical military capabilities.

REPI projects contribute to the longevity of working farms, forests, and ranchlands; increase recreational and open space opportunities for nearby residents and military families; and protect against military relocations that would adversely affect the local economy.

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Workarounds are modifications to the timing, tempo, location, or equipment used for test and training. These deviations from doctrinal test and training standards may include: reducing training days or time; segmenting an exercise into discrete steps; or changing flight patterns, limiting live-fire, and using simulations.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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Military installations and corresponding defense-related activities provide states and localities with a robust economy. Jobs that are generated through the military provide tax revenues that help create programs for many communities. The Office of Local Defense Community Cooperation (OLDCC) compiles annual data on state defense spending. This information can be found on OLDCC’s website.

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A landowner who voluntarily agrees to sell or donate an interest in their property to the Department of Defense or partner.

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Military installation resilience is the capability of a military installation to avoid, prepare for, minimize the effect of, adapt to, and recover from extreme weather events, or from anticipated or unanticipated changes in environmental conditions, that do, or have the potential to, adversely affect the military installation or essential transportation, logistical, or other necessary resources outside of the military installation that are necessary in order to maintain, improve, or rapidly reestablish installation mission assurance and mission-essential functions, as defined in 10 U.S.C. 101 (e)(8).

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Primer Purpose

This primer is intended as an introduction for land trusts, state or local governments, and other potential partners. Military personnel who are unfamiliar with REPI projects may also find it useful. The primer is designed to:

  • Help potential partners and military and civilian DoD personnel understand how REPI and the individual Military Service implementation programs work,

  • Outline essential steps to creating a REPI partnership and implementing a REPI project, and

  • Facilitate communication, common understanding, and potential collaboration among stakeholders on compatible land use issues.

The REPI Authority for Agreements to Prevent Encroachment: 10 U.S.C. § 2684a

Enacted by Congress in December 2002, the authority allows the Military Departments to partner with state and local governments or private conservation groups to cost share the acquisition of easements and other real property interests.

By preserving land near military training, testing, and operations, we can avoid more costly alternatives, such as workarounds, restricted or unrealistic training approaches, increased transit time and costs from traveling to and from locations that don't have encroachment limitations, or training or testing that inadequately prepares the military for its combat missions. Through these partnerships we will continue to cultivate strong community ties that work to enhance the defense of our nation while being stewards of the environment.

Who is the Department of Defense?

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The Department of Defense manages approximately 25 million acres of land on about 523 large military installations. Around 342 of these installations have “significant natural resources,” as defined by federal law.

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DoD is a complex organization and is also America’s largest organization. It is made up of the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the three Military Departments (including the four Military Services, each with single-Military Service and joint installations and ranges), the Joint Chiefs of Staffs, and numerous field agencies. Across the entire Department, the OSD provides overarching REPI program guidance and funding support for the Military Departments’ efforts to protect their installations and ranges and the missions they support.

The three Military Departments within DoD are the Departments of the Army, Air Force, and Navy—the Marine Corps is part of the Department of the Navy. We commonly refer to the “four Military Services” to include Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. The Army and Air National Guard are also components within the Army and Air Force. Getting to know our organization is helpful because the Military Services prepare long-term strategies, engage in partnerships, and complete transactions via Military Service-specific processes described in the appendix.

Military ranks are split between officers and enlisted personnel. Officer ranks begin with O-1 (most junior) and go up to O-10 (most senior). Similarly, enlisted personnel ranks begin with E-1 (most junior) and go up to E-9 (most senior). Civilian employees that work alongside officers and enlisted personnel are classified by their General Schedule (GS) scale. The GS scale begins at GS-1 (most junior) and goes up to GS-15 (most senior). Some very senior DoD civilians are classified using the Senior Executive Service (SES) scale, which goes from SES-1 (most junior) to SES-6 (most senior). DoD civilians in the SES scale are equivalent to military General Officers or Flag Officers (Admirals).

DoD’s Impact on the Local Economy

DoD installations positively impact local economies: they bring people to military facilities and nearby areas, employ and pay these individuals, and therefore, create economic stimulation within local communities. The influx of recruits, active duty Military Service members, and civilians generates money that flows from DoD to those individuals, who, in turn, put the money back into the local community. DoD also injects large sums of money into the private sector in regions with a military installation. Some of the industries that benefit from this investment are engineering, construction, research, hospitals, and food services.

The impact also includes environmental stewardship and conservation, energy conservation and alternative energy development, and extensive engagement with local communities. The military goes to great lengths to balance its operations with the protection of plant and animal species as well as human health. Renewable energy implementation and use on installations has grown significantly in recent years, which reduces the burden on our environment from inefficient consumer products and dirty sources of energy.

DoD Organizational Structure

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    • Department of Defense

      The Department of Defense’s mission is to provide the military forces needed to deter war and to protect the security of our country; it oversees the departments of the Army, Navy, and the Air Force. The department's headquarters is at the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia.

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      • Secretary of Defense

        The Secretary of Defense is the principal defense policy advisor to the President. Under the direction of the President, the Secretary exercises authority, direction, and control over the Department of Defense. The OSD houses a number of programs, including the REPI program.

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          The REPI Program resides under the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Sustainment.

          www.repi.mil

      • Department of the Army

        The Army consists of numbered armies, corps, divisions, brigades, and battalions that conduct full spectrum operations around the world. The Army also has institutions that support its operations with infrastructure necessary to raise, train, equip, deploy, and ensure military readiness.

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      • The Department of the Navy consists of two uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Navy trains and equips combat-ready Naval forces to deter aggression and maintain freedom of the seas. It also oversees the construction, outfitting, and repair of naval ships, equipment and facilities.

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        • Marine Corps

          As the Nation’s crisis response force and force in readiness, the Marines respond to a full range of crises and contingencies. It can serve as enabler for joint/combined forces Amphibious Task Force (ATF), Maritime Prepositioning Squadron (MPS) , or Strategic Air Lift as deployment options.

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      • Department of the Air Force

        The Air Force provides oversees all missions in airspace and cyberspace. It trains and equips airmen for global strike, rapid global mobility, command & control, and maximizes battlespace awareness.

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DoD MANAGES
27 MILLION ACRES OF LAND

ON ABOUT
523 LARGE MILITARY INSTALLATIONS

AROUND
342 INSTALLATIONS
HAVE SIGNIFICANT NATURAL RESOURCES
AS DEFINED BY FEDERAL LAW.

What is Encroachment?

Military readiness depends upon the solid platform of training and testing capabilities of our Nation’s installations, ranges, and other training and testing spaces. This infrastructure is necessary for conducting daily operations, realistic live-fire training, and effective weapon system testing. Reduced capability and availability of existing land, air, water access, and electromagnetic spectrum put military readiness at risk.

Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training. If warfighters or their units receive restricted or inadequate training, they are less likely to fully understand combat strategies and tactics, leading to insufficient skills or unnecessarily risky practices on the battlefield. Partnering to limit incompatible development and preserve habitat is vital to avoiding costly training workarounds and higher future military expenses that strain budgets and risk readiness for our nation’s defense.

Encroachment, whether by land, air, or water, has the potential to impact military training, testing, and operational readiness. These factors do not exist in isolation and many times require a comprehensive, cross-boundary approach to addressing encroachment.

Ways in which the REPI program sustains military mission capabilities through innovative land protection solutions.

The Department of Defense’s Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration (REPI) program is a key tool for promoting innovative and land conservation partnerships that benefit national defense, neighboring communities, and the environment.

Realistic combat training, pristine test environments, and operations capability are keys to keeping our service members safe. However, encroachment issues are creating obstacles that threaten military activities.

  • 80% of military bases have surrounding development that is higher than the national average.
  • Flight testing, training, and operations are impeded by cellphone towers, wind farms, and developments.
  • Night training is compromised when light pollution from nearby commercial areas spreads.
  • Parachute training is halted when housing developments are built near drop sites.
  • Weapons testing and training causes noise, dust, and smoke complaints from nearby communities.
  • Urban sprawl decreases habitat and may cause Federally protected species to seek sanctuary on military lands.
  • Wildfires, floods, and extreme storms result in billions of dollars in damage to military installations and significant readiness impacts.
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Electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation from zero to infinity. It is divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands.

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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Workarounds are modifications to the timing, tempo, location, or equipment used for test and training. These deviations from doctrinal test and training standards may include: reducing training days or time; segmenting an exercise into discrete steps; or changing flight patterns, limiting live-fire, and using simulations.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit conservation organizations, and local land trusts. Eligible entities under section 2684a are a defined subset of partners.

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An interest in land owned by another entity that consists of the right to use or control the land, or an area above or below it, for a specific limited purpose.

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How do REPI projects work?

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An easement is a legal right to use another's land for a specific limited purpose; when an entity is granted an easement, it is allowed the legal right to use the property, but the legal title to the land itself remains with the owner of the land. In this case, easements granted to REPI and its partners, allow the program to protect the land by limiting the uses of the land.

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A landowner who voluntarily agrees to sell or donate an interest in their property to the Department of Defense or partner.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit conservation organizations, and local land trusts. Eligible entities under section 2684a are a defined subset of partners.

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Military installation resilience is the capability of a military installation to avoid, prepare for, minimize the effect of, adapt to, and recover from extreme weather events, or from anticipated or unanticipated changes in environmental conditions, that do, or have the potential to, adversely affect the military installation or essential transportation, logistical, or other necessary resources outside of the military installation that are necessary in order to maintain, improve, or rapidly reestablish installation mission assurance and mission-essential functions, as defined in 10 U.S.C. 101 (e)(8).

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The Legal Authority

In December 2002, Congress gave the Military Services the authority to enter into agreements with qualified organizations and non-federal agencies to limit encroachment by enacting Section 2684a of Title 10 of the U.S.C. Congress expanded the 2684a authority in the FY 2019 National Defense Authorization Act to include agreements that enhance or improve military installation resilience. Under this authority, qualified partners include state or local governments or private conservation organizations. These partners share the cost of purchasing easements or other interests in land, or water rights, from willing sellers. The authority allows these cost-sharing partnerships to acquire a real property interest for one of three purposes:

  • To limit any development or use that is incompatible with the mission of the installation;

  • To preserve habitat to relieve current or anticipated restrictions on military activities; or

  • To enhance or improve military installation resilience from extreme weather events or from changes in environmental conditions that may impact military activities.

DoD Roles and Responsibilities

While OSD provides program guidance, interpretation of the law, funding through the REPI proposal process (Congressional funding), internal and external coordination, and reports accomplishments to Congress, each Military Service manages its own encroachment management program.

Understanding that REPI is just one tool in the Military Service’s encroachment management toolbox, they identify mission priorities, submit projects for funding, identify partners and willing sellers, establish and maintain partner agreements, conduct transactions, maintain real property interests, and report accomplishments to OSD.

The Military Services can also fund projects independent of REPI program funding. For more information on the individual Military Service implementation programs, see the appendix.

REPI Funding Sources

Most encroachment management projects are multi-year efforts, and the ability to leverage funds and resources is a key to building a solid foundation for success. Funding for these projects comes from DoD and our partners. Under the legal authority, the DoD contribution must come out of annual Operations and Maintenance (O&M) funding. DoD funding can include Research, Development, Test, & Evaluation (RDT&E) if the installation’s operations are primarily funded using RDT&E funds rather than O&M.

There are two types of DoD funding for REPI projects: (1) Military Service funds or (2) REPI program funds that are identified by Congress in a line-item in the DoD budget. The OSD oversees and administers the REPI program by issuing guidance, defining DoD-wide policies and priorities, and providing the congressional funds to the Military Services, who then implement the projects.

REPI program funds are multiplied by cost share from outside funds, which account for approximately half of total project costs to date. While there is no cost share minimum requirement, the individual Military Services may have their own targets. Partner contributions include other federal grants, state and local grants or cost share programs, private capital from conservation partners, bargain sales or donations from willing landowners, and in-kind services from our partners. Additionally, the REPI statute (10 USC § 2648(a)(h), as amended by the 2014 National Defense Authorization Act), now allows the recipient of REPI funds to use such funds as the match or cost-sharing requirement of any conservation or resilience program of any federal agency (previously limited to U.S. Department of Agriculture and Department of Interior). Leveraging funding from partners is important because the total Military Service funding requirements greatly exceed available funding. This cost share continues to demonstrate the value of REPI partnerships to Congress and the taxpayers.

REPI projects are typically funded through three channels:

  1. Military Service Fund are any Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Air Force Operations and Maintenance funding or exchanged excess for Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) real property.

  2. REPI Program Funds are provided by Congress in DoD’s annual budget.

  3. Partner Funds include other federal grants, State and local grants or cost share programs, private capital from conservation organizations, bargain sales or donations from willing landowners, and in-kind services from partners. Partner contributions do not need to be cash funds.

REPI program funds are multiplied by cost share from outside funds, which account for approximately half of total project costs to date. While there is no cost share minimum requirement, the individual Military Services may have their own targets. Partner contributions include other federal grants, state and local grants or cost share programs, private capital from conservation partners, bargain sales or donations from willing landowners, and in-kind services from our partners. Additionally, 10 U.S.C. § 2648(a)(h) now allows the recipient of REPI funds to use such funds as the match or cost-sharing requirement of any conservation or resilience program of any federal agency (previously limited to U.S. Department of Agriculture and Department of Interior). Leveraging funding from partners is important because the total Military Service funding requirements greatly exceed available funding. This cost share continues to demonstrate the value of REPI partnerships to Congress and the taxpayers.

REPI Projects Across the Country

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REPI State Profiles | REPI Projects

Guam Fort Wainwright Eielson AFB Eielson AFB Profile Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson MCAS Yuma Fort Huachuca Davis-Monthan AFB NO Flagstaff Camp Navajo Beale AFB Travis AFB NAS Lemoore Camp Roberts Camp San Luis Obispo Vandenberg AFB NAWS China Lake NB Ventura County Edwards AFB MCB Camp Pendleton Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range MCAS Miramar NB Coronado Camp Michael Monsoor MCAGCC Twentynine Palms El Centro Range Buckley AFB Fort Carson U.S. Air Force Academy 99th Armed Forces Reserve Center NAS Pensacola NAS Whiting Field Eglin AFB Tyndall AFB NS Mayport OLF Whitehouse w/ NAS Jacksonville Camp Blanding Cape Canaveral AFS Avon Park AFR Guam Region-Wide Project NSB Kings Bay Fort Gordon Robins AFB Fort Benning Fort Stewart Townsend Bombing Range Southeast Regional Army Project Joint Base Pearl Harbor - Hickam Wahiawa Annex PMRF Barking Sands U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii MCB Hawaii ARD Bayview NSA Crane-Lake Glendora Scott AFB Fort Riley Fort Knox Fort Campbell Fort Polk NAS JRB New Orleans NSY Portsmouth - SERE School Aberdeen Proving Ground Atlantic Test Ranges Joint Base Andrews NAS Patuxent River NSF Indian Head NSA Annapolis Fort Custer Camp Ripley NCBC Gulfport Camp Shelby NAS Meridian Fort Harrison, Limestone Hills NAS Fallon Fallon Range Training Complex Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst Warren Grove Range NWS Earle Fort Drum Dare County Bombing Range MCB Camp Lejeune, MCAS New River MCAS Cherry Point/Piney Island Bombing Range Fort Bragg Fort Bragg USASOC Camp Butner Tinker AFB Fort Sill Altus AFB Camp Rilea NWSTF Boardman Fort Indiantown Gap MAJIC Joint Base Charleston MCAS Beaufort Ellsworth AFB Fort Hood Camp Swift Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland Joint Base San Antonio-Randolph Joint Base San Antonio-Camp Bullis Fort Bliss Melrose AFR White Sands Missile Range Camp Williams Hill AFB NSF Dahlgren Fort A.P. Hill MCB Quantico Fort Pickett NWS Yorktown Joint Base Langley-Eustis NAS Oceana NSA Hampton Roads Northwest Annex NAS Whidbey Island OLF Coupeville NAVMAG Indian Island NB Kitsap Joint Base Lewis-McChord Fairchild AFB

As of 2020, there are REPI projects at 115 locations in 35 states and territories across the country. Each project includes one or more parcels protected through a REPI partnership. Most projects have received funding over multiple years. All DoD installations in the United States and territories are eligible for REPI program funds. If you do not see your neighboring installation on this map, you can still develop a partnership. Refer to Section 7 for more information on how to pursue partnership opportunities. Discover spatial attributes related to each project using the REPI Interactive Map.

How Do I Develop and Implement a REPI Project?

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DoD Instruction 4715.24, “The Readiness and Environmental Protection Integration (REPI) Program and Encroachment Management,” establishes policy, assigns responsibility, and provides procedures for executing the REPI program.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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A general term used to indicate a base, fort, camp, range or other DoD facility.

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Fixed-wing and rotary-wing military airfields.

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The area beyond the Clear Zone that possesses a significant potential for accidents.

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A surface on the ground or water beginning at the runway end and symmetrical about the runway centerline extended.

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An area of land consisting of a specific plot or plots of land that the Military Service would acquire and report in the REPI database as a single transaction.

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The REPI program is an internal DoD program, managed by OSD, that supports the partnerships described in this primer. The REPI program does not provide funding to our partners through an open grants program; rather each Military Service submits project proposals for funding through an online proposal tracker platform using authorized account access. Each Military Service manages a comprehensive portfolio of encroachment management projects and is not required to submit all of those projects for REPI program funding. The appendix contains details about each Military Service’s process for identifying, reviewing, and approving encroachment management projects.

In general, projects are identified locally at the installation or training and testing range level, but reviewed and approved centrally at the Military Service headquarters level. OSD provides overarching REPI program policy and guidance, administers REPI funding, and oversees reporting and tracking of Military Service efforts.

Project Proposal Review Process

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Annual Feedback

Step 1

  • Installation evaluates encroachment problems and solutions
  • Partner(s) identify areas of interest and develop relationships with landowners

Step 2

  • Installation prepares plans to address test and training needs and submits proposal to Service Headquarters
  • Service Headquarters reviews/approves proposals and determines funding strategy

Step 3

  • Service submits REPI proposals to OSD for review by REPI Inter-Service Working Group (ISWG)
  • OSD reviews proposals using criteria set in the REPI Guide

Step 4

  • OSD determines allocation rankings and distributes funding for Service implementation

Project Implementation, Monitoring, and Reporting

While the focus of REPI projects is to acquire easements or other interests in land, partnerships do not end there. To sustain our ongoing training, testing, and operational capabilities, protection of land and habitat through REPI projects is usually perpetual. To ensure permanence, a partner must plan for easement monitoring, enforcement, and, in some cases, long-term natural resources management. Future costs for natural resources management, monitoring, and enforcement may be placed as a lump sum in an interest-bearing or other investment account.

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Reporting Requirements

Natural Resource Management & Restoration

Easement Monitoring & Enforcement

Note: REPI program funds are appropriated annually by Congress. This means that all funds MUST be contractually obligated during the Federal fiscal year (ends on September 30) in which they are appropriated by Congress. All transactions must be completed as soon as possible after that obligation, with an expectation of expending all funds no later than 18 months after obligation. Funds must be fully spent within five years of obligation.

Other Complementary Land Use Tools

REPI partnerships are one of many tools in the encroachment management toolbox. Integrating REPI partnerships with some of the other DoD tools and strategies can help further increase land protection, conservation, and cost savings. A few other examples:

Through the Air Installations Compatible Use Zone (AICUZ) and Range Air Installations Compatible Use Zone (RAICUZ) program, air installations work with local governments and the community to educate stakeholders on the air installation’s mission and develop compatible land use recommendations that can inform zoning and local ordinances with the aim of reducing potential accidents and noise impacts to the community. This program designates Accident Potential Zones, Clear Zones, and noise zones at the end of military runways. These are areas of land that need to be compatible with air operations while preserving the health and safety of on-base personnel and the community. The Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force all use AICUZ criteria to strategically identify parcels in the vicinity of air stations and bases to be protected.

Instead of using REPI program or O&M funds for DoD contributions to a REPI project transaction, the Military Services can use a property exchange under the authority of 10 U.S.C. § 2869. The 2869 authority allows DoD to convey excess or closed Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) property in exchange for an agreement to acquire real property under the 2684a authority. Excess land can be directly exchanged for land of equal value that will be protected through a REPI partnership, or the excess land can be transferred to a partner who agrees to make a contribution of equivalent value to a REPI project transaction. A land exchange provides DoD the ability to efficiently use limited resources to benefit its mission. Meanwhile, the excess DoD property is returned to the tax rolls or otherwise used for community benefit.

The Office of Local Defense Community Cooperation (OLDCC) (formerly Office of Economic Adjustment) Compatible Use Program is the only program of direct Federal assistance to help states and communities work with the Military Services to promote compatible civilian development in support of the long-term sustainability and operability of military installations, including ranges, special use airspace, military operations areas, and military training routes. OLDCC provides technical and financial assistance to state and local governments to develop a Compatible Use Plan and carry out the recommended strategies to promote compatible civilian development. Through the community-driven Compatible Use Plan development process, adjacent communities and often the state, in partnership with the installation, identify and evaluate a wide range of existing and potential future compatibility challenges that may impair the military mission. The affected communities then develop a strategic action plan to identify specific actions, responsible parties, a proposed timeline, and possible funding sources to address the compatibility challenges. Through a Compatible Use Plan, a Military Service and/or the affected communities may identify an issue for which a REPI project can provide resolution. Thus, the Compatible Use Program serves as a powerful tool for the REPI program in bringing communities and the military together to address compatible land use issues and needs. More information is available at https://oldcc.gov.

DoD Siting Clearinghouse was established in 2010 to provide a timely, transparent, and repeatable process that can evaluate potential impacts from energy development as well as explore mitigation options that preserve the DoD mission. With the rapid expansion of alternative energy, DoD is increasingly called on to review the compatibility of proposed wind, solar, transmission, and other projects with military activities.

DoD has a structured process for developers to request that DoD conduct mission compatibility evaluations, documented in 32 C.F.R. Part 211. The Clearinghouse's formal review process applies to projects filed with the Secretary of Transportation, under 49 U.S.C. § 44718 (Federal Aviation Administration obstruction evaluation process), as well as other projects proposed for construction within military training routes or special use airspace, whether on private, state, or Federal property, such as Bureau of Land Management lands. The Clearinghouse also provides informal reviews, when requested. This means that a developer, landowner, state, tribal, or other local official may request a preliminary determination in advance of the filing of an application with the Secretary of Transportation. More information can be found on the Clearinghouse website.

Installations work with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and state fish and wildlife agencies to ensure natural resources are managed consistent with proper stewardship and sound science, while complying with legal requirements. To alleviate restrictions on threatened and endangered species habitat, our installations are working beyond their boundaries to attain credits for promoting the conservation and recovery of a listed or potentially listed or its habitat. Installations can consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service according to Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act to accrue credits and alleviate restrictions by showing a measurable contribution to a species’ recovery through equivalent protection on non-DoD lands.

Additionally, DoD has specific regulatory authority to purchase credits directly from conservation banks, mitigation banks, and in-lieu fee programs (10 U.S.C. § 2694c and 10 U.S.C. § 2694d). Mitigation banks and in-lieu fee programs provide compensatory mitigation credits for impacts to wetlands and other aquatic resources. Banks issue credits prior to the impact, while in-lieu fee mitigation is implemented after the impact from the DoD activity. Under recovery credit systems, DoD serves as the bank. Recognition of DoD’s authority to use recovery credit systems is provided in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service guidance (73 Fed. Reg. 148, p. 44761-44772).

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The red-cockaded woodpecker (RCW) is an endangered bird that inhabits the open pine forests (mainly longleaf pine) of the Southeast from New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia to Florida, West to Texas and North to portions of Oklahoma, Missouri, Tennessee and Kentucky. The RCW is a non-migratory species that makes its home (cavities) in mature pine forests. These birds are considered ‘keystone’ species because the use of their cavities by other species contributes to the richness of the pine forest.

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Gopher tortoises are currently endangered in the Southeast Region of the U.S. and threatened in other parts across the country. Each tortoise will dig and use many burrows throughout the active season; these burrows also provide refuge for about 360 other species throughout its range. Gopher tortoises thrive in relatively deep, sandy, soils and in longleaf pine forests. Threats include habitat fragmentation and degradation, predation, inadequacy of regulatory mechanisms, road kill, and incompatible use of herbicides in forest management.

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The checkerspot butterfly is currently a threatened species in the Northwest region of the U.S. that likely to become endangered in the foreseeable future. Checkerspot butterflies exist on shallow, serpentine-derived soil. Threats include habitat loss and fragmentation, invasion of exotic/invasive plants, nitrogen deposition, pesticide application (including drift), illegal collecting, fire, overgrazing, and gopher control.

What else does the REPI program support?

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Area equipped for practicing shooting at targets.

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REPI newsletters are written to provide our partners—military and civilian alike—with important updates, useful information, upcoming events, and a look into what REPI projects and partners are accomplishing across the country. Previous newsletters are available here. If you are not already signed up for REPI's mailing list, you can do so here.

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A general term used to indicate a base, fort, camp, range or other DoD facility.

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Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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A private or governmental entity that provides financial, technical real estate, legal, or other significant support to a Military Service in the pursuit or conduct of a REPI project or transaction. Examples include federal agencies, state and local authorities, national nonprofit.

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A significant component of the REPI program involves engaging with our partners and other stakeholders to help advance understanding of each other’s missions. Key partners to the REPI program include the National Conference of State Legislatures, the National Association of Counties, the Association of Defense Communities, Land Trust Alliance, and the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture. Educational programs and materials include helpful tools and training like community forums; site visits of ranges and installations; newsletters; workshops and other trainings sessions; a robust webinar series that addresses best practices, tutorials, and capacity building on REPI partnerships; the REPI Program’s web mapping application; an interactive story map highlighting the program’s significant accomplishments through a narrated series of maps and pictures; and the REPI Program’s “primer” series, developed in partnership with a number of national partners. Primers, like this one, provide a chance to go in-depth with particular topics. You can download electronic copies for free at https://www.repi.mil/Resources/Primers/. You may also request printed copies by sending an email to osd.repi@mail.mil. More information on these resources is available at http://www.REPI.mil.

Individual REPI projects can create greater and multiple benefits by expanding and coordinating their efforts and activities in the form of regional partnerships and landscape-scale initiatives. By promoting cross-boundary collaboration on planning and land use issues, REPI partnerships can enhance sustainability efforts of a broader scale and scope. To this end, DoD is a partner in two multi-state, multi-agency partnerships in rapidly growing areas of the country with significant DoD land presence: the Southeast and the Southwest regions of the U.S.

Serppas map

The Southeast Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS) brings together senior leadership from southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Mississippi) and federal agencies to work collectively on regional planning, conservation, economic, and sustainability issues.

wrp map

Similarly, the Western Regional Partnership (WRP) provides opportunities for state, federal, and Tribal leadership in California, Colorado, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and New Mexico to come together to discuss common issues and seek collaborative solutions.

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DoD, together with the Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and the Interior (DOI) established the Sentinel Landscapes Partnership in 2013 through a Memorandum of Understanding. This nationwide Federal, local, and private partnership is dedicated to promoting natural resource sustainability and the preservation of agriculture and conservation land uses in areas surrounding military installations. Agencies from DoD, USDA, and DOI coordinate the Partnership at the national level through the Sentinel Landscapes Federal Coordination Committee (FCC), to identify and designate shared interests within a Landscape in order to coordinate strategies to preserve, enhance or protect habitat and working lands near military installations in order to reduce, prevent or eliminate restrictions due to incompatible development that inhibit military testing and training.

The Partnership seeks to recognize and incentivize landowners to continue maintaining these landscapes and use taxpayer dollars more efficiently. Although no dedicated funding accompanies Landscape designation, individual partner agencies may choose to provide program-specific funding or prioritize consideration in existing funding processes to landowners within a designated Landscape. Additionally, a designation will lead to improved recognition at the local, state, and national level for projects within a Landscape and provide an opportunity to better target collective resources and possibly develop new technical and financial assistance options tailored to address local needs.

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Avon Park Airforce Range Designated Sentinel Landscape: Efforts to conserve working lands within the Avon Park Air Force Range Sentinel Landscape play a vital role in not only protecting the range’s important training mission, but also protecting and improving water quality within the Everglades Headwaters National Wildlife Refuge and Conservation Area

The Result: More Success for Everyone

The REPI Program’s outreach and engagement efforts increase understanding of the mutual benefits REPI partnerships provide and also attract more resources and partners to more projects. They provide tools for more effective application of solutions to reduce and prevent encroachment on military installations and to meet partner goals. The net result is more conservation of natural resources, better land use planning, and longer-term benefits for communities, stakeholders, and the military.

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Joint Base Lewis-McChord (JBLM): a REPI partnership success story. Since Joint Base Lewis-McChord hosts the majority of the remaining prairie habitat in the South Puget Sound, loss of prairie outside the base can lead to increased restrictions to protect the remaining habitat and its imperiled species, thereby threatening Army activities. One of two REPI projects at the base aims to restore habitat on southern Puget lowlands and sustain the Army training mission. Through REPI, JBLM leveraged contributions from the state and local governments to protect the McChord Field runway. Buffers prevent new commercial development and allow for the removal of buildings that violate runway safety zone requirements. Pilots can now use a previously unavailable precision-guidance instrument landing system, while ecological assets are preserved before they are endangered, benefiting the entire region.

What are key steps in developing a REPI encroachment management partnership?

The following are 10 key steps to help develop a successful partnership:

Lessons Learned

The following are some recommendations gained from the valuable feedback of our partners and installations who have successfully completed REPI project transactions:

  • Establish contacts between installation, regional military office, and local community stakeholders—stable points of contact improve the process and communication.
  • Keep communication open and provide updates on a regular basis.
  • Make sure everyone has a common understanding and keeps perspective on the partnership’s context and goals.
  • Align goals between military and partners to optimize funding and target priorities.
  • Be aware of landowner education and biases.
  • Involve a partner that can translate the often technical language of the REPI authority to unfamiliar landowners.
  • Take time to build trust with other agencies and stakeholders.
  • Choose a project that is a priority for all stakeholders involved—increases motivation.
  • Develop agreements with all parties contributing funds so that they all agree to the appraiser selected and the guidelines.
  • Start the process as soon as possible.
  • Build on previous partnerships or other successes.
  • Prepare for delays, changes in procedure, and other roadblocks, but don’t get discouraged!
  • Seek other funding sources that have the same land preservation goals.

Summary

Incompatible land uses and habitat loss near and adjacent to installations, ranges, and operating areas threaten our ability to provide our military with the most realistic training.

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REPI partnerships are one solution for combating encroachment and supporting our Nation’s long-term military readiness, while delivering mutual, multiple benefits to communities and stakeholders.

This graphic depicts the three pillars of the REPI program: encroachment management projects, landscape partnerships, and stakeholder engagements.

Through REPI projects, you can support the men and women in uniform who defend our nation as well as their families and communities, enhance military readiness, conserve valuable habitat, preserve working farms and forestland, foster sustainable economies, and protect your local heritage. The REPI program also provides new opportunities to collaborate with other federal land conservation programs and landscape-scale initiatives. There are many opportunities to come together in partnership with the REPI program and make a difference.

celebrate success

Take the time to celebrate success. Getting together to celebrate the success of your REPI partnership is a small but important way to acknowledge everyone’s hard work, build more meaningful relationships, and carry the momentum forward. U.S. Army Garrison-Hawaii’s partners and the local community held a special event to celebrate the protection of a 1,129- acre coastal bluff at Pupukea-Paumalu near the Army’s Kahuku Training Area on the North Shore of the island of Oahu. Partners from the Army, The Trust for Public Land, and the North Shore Community Land Trust attended the community ceremony.